By Jan E. Jirasek
Designated, remarkable, entire, and unparalled - sure, it is all that and masses, even more. generally illustrated with greater than 500 colour and black-and-white pictures, An Atlas of Human Prenatal Developmental Mechanics is the definitive advisor to trendy embryology. the writer describes and illustrates human prenatal improvement and staging near to anatomy and discusses the opportunity of following prenatal improvement with scientific tools of prenatal diagnostics. masking the advance and staging of all embryonic platforms, he offers the anatomic framework in accordance with direct photographic proof got solely on human embryos and fetuses.
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Extra resources for An Atlas of Human Prenatal Development Mechanics: Anatomy And Staging
6 Orofacial development Primordia: stage 6–1 Preceding closure of the anterior neuropore, the following structures are located around the oral plate: the middle point of the head is the area of attachment of rostral and of notochordal plate to the oral membrane, closing the stomodeum. Folds of eye vesicles are distinct. Eye cups lateralize, olfactory cells migrate from the frontal area of the prosencephalon to the rim of the stomodeum (closed by the oral membrane) Early embroyonic stage: stages 7–1 and 7–2 The anterior neuropore is closed, the oral membrane has disappeared and the olfactory placodes are indistinct.
The umbilical circulation The umbilical (embryochorionic) circulation supplies embryonic blood to the chorionic villi by way of two umbilical arteries located in the connecting stalk. Umbilical arteries connect the descending aorta with the capillary nets of the chorionic villi. l The heart Components Morphogenesis Anlage Heart tube Heart (coiling alignment) pericardial mesoderm with myocardial plate cardiac jelly heart plate: endothelial net over subcardial diverticulum of yolk sac mesenchyme of first pharyngeal arches inflow portion (sinoatrial segment, left ventricle) outflow portion (bulbus) loop sinoatrial portion (both atria) and left ventricle Embryonic heart Fetal heart Septations Alignment of the heart loop Interatrial septation septum primum Stage Days 6–1 6–1 6–1 21 21 20 6–1, 2, 3 6–2, 3 22–28 24–26 7–2, 7–3 30–35 myocardial basket bulbus right ventricle conus aortopulmonary segment both atria with auricles 7–3, 7–4 left and right ventricles proximal ascending aorta proximal pulmonary artery septations: atrial, atrioventricular, interventricular, aortopulmonary development of coronaries: veins, arteries atria: interatrial communication through foramen ovale 9 to delivery separated ventricles by muscular and membranous septum: right with common opening of pulmonary artery and arterial duct*, left with aortal opening 35–40 56 till birth 7–1 35–40 7–2, 3, 4 35–40 32 AN ATLAS OF HUMAN PRENATAL DEVELOPMENTAL MECHANICS Components Stage Days septum secundum 7–4 35–41 Aortopulmunary 7–3, 4 42–45 septation Atrioventricular 7–4 to 8-2 25–52 septation formation of the 7–4 to 7-6 50–55 left and right atrioventricular canal formation of 7–4 to 8–1 42–44 bicuspid and tricuspid valves Interventricular septation muscular septum 6–2 to 8–1 24–52 membranous 8–1, 2 51–55 septum Contractions Irregular 6–2 24–30 contractions perpendicular 6–3 flow Co-ordinated 7–1 30–32 contractions streaming blood (beginning of embryo’s chorionic circulation) The fetal heart rate increases to 140–160/min from 4 to 8 gestational weeks *The arterial duct shunts blood between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta blood through trophoblast and endothelium) returns by way of the two umbilical veins.
There is an ulnoradial gradient of retinoic acid determining the number and character of finger rays. The sequence of bone development is mesenchymal condensation, followed by a cartilaginous model of bone, which is replaced by bony tissue by ossification. (4) Apoptosis of the limb bud mesenchyme is related to the marginal sinus and its regression and affects tissues between finger rays and toe rays. The apoptosis is the functional end of the nutritional system of limb buds. (5) The connective tissues capillaries and veins, bones and tendons arise from the mesenchyme of limb buds.