By Joseph Wang(auth.)
Chapter 1 basic options (pages 1–27):
Chapter 2 research of Electrode Reactions (pages 28–59):
Chapter three Controlled?Potential strategies (pages 60–99):
Chapter four useful concerns (pages 100–139):
Chapter five Potentiometry (pages 140–170):
Chapter 6 Electrochemical Sensors (pages 171–202):
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Additional resources for Analytical Electochemistry, Second Edition
Particularly informative are the couplings of electrochemistry with electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. A variety of specially designed cells have been constructed to facilitate such studies, and several reviews have been published (32±36). Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is another useful technique for studying the fate of electrogenerated radicals that emit light. It involves the formation of light-emitting excited-state species as a result of fast and highly energetic electron-transfer reactions of reactants formed electrochemically (37,38).
Phys. , 6, 337 (1955). 8. D. Mohilner, Electroanal. , 1, 241 (1966). 9. O'M. A. Devanathan, and K. Muller, Proc. R. , 55, A274 (1963). 10. R. Parsons, J. Electrochem. , 127, 176C (1980). 11. B. Mark, Analyst 115, 667 (1990). 12. M. Bond, I. Heritage, and M. Briggs, Langmuir, 1, 110 (1985). Questions 1. Show or draw the concentration pro®le/gradient near the electrode surface during a linear scan voltammetric experiment in stirred a solution. ) Show also the resulting voltammogram, along with points for each concentration gradient (in a manner analogous to Figure 1-4).
The Helmholtz model does not take into account the thermal motion of ions, which loosens them from the compact layer. The outer layer (beyond the compact layer), referred to as the diffuse layer (or Gouy layer), is a three-dimensional region of scattered ions, which extends from the OHP into the bulk solution. Such an ionic distribution re¯ects the counterbalance between ordering forces of the electrical ®eld and the disorder caused by a random thermal motion. Based on the equilibrium between these two opposing effects, the concentration of ionic species at a given distance from the surface, C x, decays exponentially with the ratio between the electrostatic energy (zFF) and the thermal energy (RT ), in accordance with the Boltzmann equation: C x C 0 exp ÀzFF=RT 1-43 The total charge of the compact and diffuse layers equals (and is opposite in sign to) the net charge on the electrode side.