By Lorenzo J. Curtis

Lorenzo Curtis bargains a brand new conceptual method of atomic constitution that makes use of conceptual semiclassical versions to introduce empirical systematizations of measured facts. those versions exhibit the dynamical habit of many of the interactions that explain the energies and lifetimes of complicated atoms. Curtis emphasizes the historic foundation of the sector in addition to the connection to trendy basic concept. He additionally comprises many solved difficulties that offer connections with astrophysics, chemistry, condensed topic, and different comparable fields.

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**Extra resources for Atomic Structure and Lifetimes: A Conceptual Approach**

**Sample text**

1 Historical development 43 determinism, and rejected the inclusion of properties that were imperfectly or incompletely measured. Comte died in 1857, and was thus denied knowledge of the power of atomic spectroscopy. In Uppsala, Anders Jonas Ångstr¨om [1] had anticipated the work of Kirchhoff in concluding that a cool gas absorbs just those wavelengths of light that it emits (in transitions to the ground state) when it is hot. Ångstr¨om not only extended the use of spectroscopy in laboratory astrophysics, but also placed the wavelength measurements on a ﬁrm and precise scale in terms of the unit that bears his name (the measurements of Kirchhoff and Bunsen were on an arbitrary scale based only on markings on the spectrometer in their Heidelberg laboratory).

10 The core polarization model In order to precisely characterize highly excited states in complex atoms, a core polarization model is often adopted [87, 190]. In this model, the outer active electron is considered to orbit a core (consisting of a nucleus and a deformable cloud of inner passive electrons) of effective charge ζ and electrostatic polarizabilities αd and α Q that lead, respectively, to ﬁeld-induced dipole and quadrupole moments d and Q. The induced dipole moment of the core is proportional to the electrostatic ﬁeld of the electron (which varies as 1/r 2 ).

139) which produces a breakdown in the deﬁnition of periapsis. For an electrostatic potential κ = ζ ke2 and the EBK quantization L = ( + 12 ) h¯ , these quantities can be written in terms of the ﬁne structure constant α ≡ ke2 / h¯ c, and this condition becomes αζ > + 1 . 5. 141) Analogous breakdowns occur at high Z in relativistic quantum theory whereby the Coulomb potential becomes too strong to permit stationary states to occur. In the case of the Dirac equation (describing the spin 12 electron) this occurs for α Z > 1.